Beccaria developed in his treatise a number of innovative and influential principles:

  • punishment had a preventive , not a retributive, function;
  • punishment should be proportionate to the crime committed;
  • the probability of punishment, not its severity, would achieve the preventive effect;
  • procedures of criminal convictions should be public; and finally,
  • in order to be effective, punishment should be prompt.

He also argued against gun control laws. He was among the first to advocate the beneficial influence of education in lessening crime.

from wikipedia

Are we there yet?

1764  Cesare Beccarie  openly condemned the death penalty on two grounds:

  1. first, because the state does not possess the right to take lives; and
  2. secondly, because capital punishment is neither a useful nor a necessary form of punishment


Today we still have 32 states still have the death penalty.( http://www.deathpenaltyinfo.org/states-and-without-death-penalty)


Alabama                                  Arizona                          Arkansas

California                                Colorado                        Delaware

Florida                                     Georgia                          Idaho

Indiana                                    Kansas                            Kentucky

Louisiana                                 Mississippi                     Missouri

Montana                                  Nebraska                        Nevada

New Hampshire                       North Carolina              Ohio

Oklahoma                                Oregon                           Pennsylvania

South Carolina                        South Dakota                Tennessee

Texas                                       Utah                               Virginia

Washington                             Wyoming


– U.S. Gov’t

– U.S. Military

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